ASU-Conservation International Professor of Practice Jack Kittinger, along with a team of experts from The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and California Environmental Associates have built a research agenda on Blue Water Marine Protected Areas via a report titled "Developing a Shared Research Agenda for Blue Water MPAs." Blue Water MPAs are open ocean areas designated to protect marine biodiversity and other cultural and natural resources. The efficacy of marine reserves varies greatly depending on where they are located and how they are managed. Included in the research agenda is the current knowledge and research gaps of Blue Water MPA’s that would test the effectiveness of this tool on a list of conservation benefits. With this knowledge, essential actionable research priorities could be implemented. ASU Center for Biodiversity Outcomes Founding Director Leah Gerber, along with other leaders in the philanthropic, nonprofit and academic sectors, provided critical feedback for the report.